Who is Your Narrator Talking To?

Every story has a narrator–some narrators are the protagonist, others tell the tale as a group, and some lurk in the shadows or hover above the story like an all-seeing-eye. Whichever point of view style a writer chooses, it’s pointing at someone.

In grand terms, it’s the reader, but it can be more subtle than that. Some novels break the fourth wall and address the reader directly, while others have their characters exist in a world that feels like we’re watching on closed circuit TV.

All of these point of view styles can work, and one isn’t preferable over the other. But if you’re struggling with your novel, or feeling like your point of view is off in some way and don’t know why, or just want to kick you novel up a notch, it might be worth identifying a few things:

  1. Who is your narrator?
  2. Who is he or she talking to?

Answering these two questions can help you pinpoint who is at the center of your story and the best way to convey that story to your readers.

Who is Your Narrator?

In most cases, this will be easy to answer. A first-person novel is clearly narrated by the first-person character. Same with a tight third person perspective. Third person omniscient has an outside narrator. But when you add more characters or write with a medium narrative distance, the narrator(s) can become less obvious or even get lost. If you’re unsure, ask yourself:

  • What point of view am I doing?
  • Who’s story is it?
  • Am I inside or outside of the point of view character’s head?
  • Do I share any information the point of view characters couldn’t know?
  • Once you know your narrator, think about who she’s narrating the story to.

Who is Your Narrator Talking To?

A common trope (especially with first person) is to treat the novel as if the protagonist was writing or had written down her story. These are the events that passed at a certain point in a certain life. The narrator is literally talking to the reader, intending the novel to be read by someone. But take a step back and think about what that means to the protagonist–the “reader” means something different to her than it does to us, because in her mind, it’s someone living in her world. If she’s writing about her struggles to overcome a natural disaster, she expects her readers to know about that disaster and understand it on a personal level. She’s probably not picturing people sitting in a comfy chair at Starbucks while they sip a latte, but assuming they’re either going through the same thing or are reading it after they survived it. She might even be writing this story to help them survive it.

If you keep that in mind, it can guide you in deciding what that narrator is going to share with that reader–what aspects of the world she might think are vital, what she wouldn’t bother explaining because it’s so well known to everyone, what secrets she might reveal or lessons learned she might pass on. There are things the intended recipient of this story is going to need to know.

Conversely, a third person omniscient narrator is often more like a camera recording the event, relaying the information with little or no judgment, and letting the reader decide what it means. The point of view characters aren’t specifically talking to anyone, and they might not know they’re being recorded at all. People act differently when they think no one is watching, and you can use that to your advantage with this kind of narrator. The narrator is putting the information out there for whoever wants to view it.

Of course, the narrator might have an agenda. Maybe the novel is one big propaganda piece designed to make the narrator look good or someone else look bad. The story could be trying to convince people of a lie. Maybe the narrator does convince readers, or maybe she doesn’t and readers can see through that lie to the real truth.

The novel might show just one side of a larger issue. The story is the narrator’s take on what she feels is the truth, even if it’s not accurate. The story (or her part of it) is what she thinks happened.

Or, the narrator is only talking to herself. It’s her internal monologue, a private peek at her world and her life, and she hopes no one else ever sees inside that life.

Even if narrators never expects anyone to hear or read their stories, they’re talking to someone. And knowing who that is can be a great tool when crafting or polishing a draft.

Taking some time to consider who your narrator is and who she’s talking to can add another layer to the story. It can color the details and bring out a richness just “telling” the story doesn’t achieve. That “person” never needs to be revealed, but having an idea of who it is can guide you to making the novel feel like it has a greater purpose. It’s not just a book, it was a story written to serve a larger goal.

Who is your narrator talking to?

4 Responses to Who is Your Narrator Talking To?

  1. Julie Jan 21 2015 at 9:54 am #

    Janice, I LOVE this post! Such a unique take on POV. The questions you pose here had my mind flitting from book to book, narrator to narrator. Thanks for this! 🙂

  2. Melinda Jan 21 2015 at 3:44 pm #

    Hi Janice,
    I saw this floating around Twitter and thought “I know the narrator’s talking to the reader.” I thought that since I already knew that, I didn’t need to read this post. I’m so glad I decided to read it anyway! What fabulous insights you provide here! I never thought about POV in quite this way. Thanks for sharing these great ideas to add spark to my writing!

  3. Kim Graff Jan 23 2015 at 1:17 pm #

    I often wonder this question. But I’ve never had such a coherent, great post to refer to to decide how to answer it. Thanks for this great post!

  4. Michelle Olave Feb 23 2021 at 7:25 am #

    I have a Gordian , that was given to my Grandmother for no reason , came in my family life , we didn’t even have a problem to be given a Gordian n , well he came in started being very strange , took over my Grandmother everything, didn’t pay bills , Ian’s my mother my son and myself, we took care my Grandmother she didn’t need for anything, when I question the Gordian about not paying her bills , he told me to go away and stay away , so I wrote the Administrative Judge , they had me to come to court they fowling week , thinking I was going to get help , we’ll the judge , acted real funny , well the Judge only spoke to the Gordian , and as he started to speck he started walking back and fourth saying he can do what he wants , and my Grandmother was like his child , and I’m listing to him , and looking at his behavior, I felt like something is really wrong with him and this situation, well he had the nerves to say to the judge he didn’t want me to ever be able to see my Grandmother again , then we had got a court date to return to court , COVID came , when before COVID came I wouldn’t let my Granddaughter and I in , this is what the home Attendent told me that he told her to never let none of the family, friends in , so my Grandmother died , I want this to be brought to light that this is what about to spread if , I would like the world to now , about this , and now he’s trying to take her property , this is a nightmare, please help me to ex’s pose the Gordian’s about to come to take advantage over they elderly , and all they have , and the judges , way are they allowing this , let’s fix this , before it’s don’t to you and I , Mrs Michelle Olave

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